Argument structures and fallacies

Item 1:


Error: Content fallacies of presumption (hasty generalization)

Analysis: This ad shows a hasty generalization. It states that “Gentlemen prefer blondes” which is not true because all men have different tastes in women. Just because Marilyn Monroe used the shampoo does not mean that men would still prefer her over any other woman. The ad is also a very old ad and many things have changed since the time of the Marilyn Monroe .


Item 2: 

  • Premise 1: All Christians believe in God.
  • Premise 2: All Muslims believe in God.
  • Conclusion: All Christians are Muslims.


Error: Structural fallacies (reasoning in a chain with all)

Analysis: “All Christians”: S. “Believe in God”: Q. “All Muslims”: P

All S are Q

All P are Q

–> All S are P


Item 3: 

If we don’t stop the Communists in South Vietnam, they’ll take over the whole country.

If they take over Vietnam, next they’ll conquer Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand.

Once they have Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand – they’ll overrun Indonesia and the rest of the Pacific Rim.

Once they conquer the Pacific Rim, they’ll take Japan – and the next thing you know, they’ll be off the coast of California!


Error: Content fallacies of Presumption (Slippery slope)

Analysis: The implicit: Communists invading California is unacceptable, the explicit: We must stop the Communists in South Vietnam. It does not explain how the first lead the to the next and even the last.


About tuangoc

Ngoc Cheng

One response »

  1. Hi Ngoc. This is a nice entry.
    I love all your items, especially, item 1 and 3.
    – Item 1, I agree with u that this is an old ad and not all the men like or know Marylin Monroe.
    _ Item 2, it is so simple so I have no idea.
    _ Item 3, This one is so funny and I have the same idea.

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