Argument Structures and Fallacies



uống trà Vfresh atiso giống như SiuBlack nhẹ tựa lông hồng ”


–Fallacy of structure:

       + fallacy of denying the antecedent:

               ” Nếu uống trà Vfresh atiso như SiuBlack, sau đó mình sẽ nhẹ nhu long hồng

Không uống trà Vfresh atiso

–> Do đó sẽ không có cảm giác nhẹ như lông hồng ”

 Fallacy type:  If A, then B

                          Not A

                   –> Therefore, Not B

==> Drinking Vfresh only is necessary condition but is not sufficient condition to have  a  fresh and light body.

–Fallacy of content:

      + fallacy of relevance –> appeal to authority

 The opinion of SiuBlack, a famous person is supported to guarantee the truth of the conclusion about good quality of product. SiuBlack is a famous singer so she can have good advices on music but it doesn’t mean that she also gives good advices  on nutrition. Even in the area where they have excellent knowledge or skills, experts or famous persons also can be mistaken, so we can accept their idea as an extra evidence but not complete truth for a conclusion. An individual cannot represent the truth.


In a school debate, Bill claims that the President’s economic plan is unrealistic. His opponent, a professor, retorts by saying “the freshman has his facts wrong.”



–Fallacy of structure:

In the debate, the professor gaven the statement ” the freshman has his facts wrong ” to refuse Bill’s claim. Structure is that:

+Premise 1:                 the freshman has his facts wrong

+Hidden premise 2: Bill is the freshman


Hidden conclusion: Bill has his facts wrong –> Bill’s claim is unreliable

The professor had a weak hidden conclusion because the premise 1 is not completely true.

This is invalidity –> invalid weak argument

Fallacy of content:

+ fallacy of relevance: personal attack

The statement  ” the freshman has his facts wrong ” is fallacious. The professor rejected Bill’s claim only because Bill is his opponent but not base on any merits of the claim itself. The attack is directed at the person making the claim and not the claim itself. The truth value of a claim is independent of the person making the claim. After all, no matter how repugnant an individual might be, he or she can still make true claims.

       +fallacy of presumption : hasty genneralization

It is in the content of the claim ” the freshman has his facts wrong “. Not all of persons who are freshman have their facts wrong. This presumption is given without any evidence to prove.





Source: http://www.tenthamendmentcenter.com/2010/08/08/rewriting-history/


Fallacy of content: fallacy of ambiguity

The statements are given with very unclear meaning without any evidences and make readers much embarrassed to misunderstand.

” War  is Peace

Freedom is Slavery

Ignorance is Strength ”

fallacy of a worthless argument: because it is not able to say that ”War is Peace, ……..”







About huyenpj

always smile! always try!

3 responses »

  1. hi Huyen, i like your 3 items, clear and understandable, however, in item 2, i think it is inductively argument because the premise 1 is not true.

  2. Hi Huyen. I love all of your 3 three items ^^. Your analyses are quite detailed. You have paid a lot of attention to this entry, right?^^
    However, I also agree with Thu’ comment about the 2nd item that it is inductively argument!

  3. i like your items very much! the first one is so interesting! I agree with the formers about your idea of the 2rd items. I should be inductive argument
    I want to say that your 1st item you can add one more premise to make it clearer: Siu Black isnot light any at all! So she drinks Atiso and feel light . Therefore, if you drinks Atiso, you will feel the same^^

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