Argument Structures and Fallacies
” uống trà Vfresh atiso giống như SiuBlack nhẹ tựa lông hồng ”
–Fallacy of structure:
+ fallacy of denying the antecedent:
” Nếu uống trà Vfresh atiso như SiuBlack, sau đó mình sẽ nhẹ nhu long hồng
Không uống trà Vfresh atiso
–> Do đó sẽ không có cảm giác nhẹ như lông hồng ”
Fallacy type: If A, then B
–> Therefore, Not B
==> Drinking Vfresh only is necessary condition but is not sufficient condition to have a fresh and light body.
–Fallacy of content:
+ fallacy of relevance –> appeal to authority
The opinion of SiuBlack, a famous person is supported to guarantee the truth of the conclusion about good quality of product. SiuBlack is a famous singer so she can have good advices on music but it doesn’t mean that she also gives good advices on nutrition. Even in the area where they have excellent knowledge or skills, experts or famous persons also can be mistaken, so we can accept their idea as an extra evidence but not complete truth for a conclusion. An individual cannot represent the truth.
In a school debate, Bill claims that the President’s economic plan is unrealistic. His opponent, a professor, retorts by saying “the freshman has his facts wrong.”
–Fallacy of structure:
In the debate, the professor gaven the statement ” the freshman has his facts wrong ” to refuse Bill’s claim. Structure is that:
+Premise 1: the freshman has his facts wrong
+Hidden premise 2: Bill is the freshman
Hidden conclusion: Bill has his facts wrong –> Bill’s claim is unreliable
The professor had a weak hidden conclusion because the premise 1 is not completely true.
This is invalidity –> invalid weak argument
—Fallacy of content:
+ fallacy of relevance: personal attack
The statement ” the freshman has his facts wrong ” is fallacious. The professor rejected Bill’s claim only because Bill is his opponent but not base on any merits of the claim itself. The attack is directed at the person making the claim and not the claim itself. The truth value of a claim is independent of the person making the claim. After all, no matter how repugnant an individual might be, he or she can still make true claims.
+fallacy of presumption : hasty genneralization
It is in the content of the claim ” the freshman has his facts wrong “. Not all of persons who are freshman have their facts wrong. This presumption is given without any evidence to prove.
—Fallacy of content: fallacy of ambiguity
The statements are given with very unclear meaning without any evidences and make readers much embarrassed to misunderstand.
” War is Peace
Freedom is Slavery
Ignorance is Strength ”
—fallacy of a worthless argument: because it is not able to say that ”War is Peace, ……..”