Entry 4: Argument structure and fallacy
– Structure Fallacy:
If noodle contains color which is harmful for health then water of it turns to opaque yellow
“Tiến Vua” noodle does not make water turn yellow
“Tiến Vua” noodle does not contain color which is harmful for health
– Analyze: The first premise is not true because it is not sure that color in noodle makes water turn yellow. Moreover, whether color is harmful for health or not is still questionable. Therefore, it is valid, but unsound and worthless argument.
How They Forecast a Cold Winter
One day in early September the chief of a Native American tribe was asked by his tribal elders if the winter of 2009/10 was going to be cold or mild. The chief asked his medicine man, but he too had lost touch with the reading signs from the natural world around the Great Lakes.
In truth, neither of them had idea about how to predict the coming winter. However, the chief decided to take a modern approach, and the chief rang the National Weather Service in Gaylord Michigan.
‘Yes, it is going to be a cold winter,’ the meteorological officer told the chief. Consequently, he went back to his tribe and told the men to collect plenty of firewood.
A fortnight later the chief called the Weather Service and asked for an update. ‘Are you still forecasting a cold winter?’ he asked.
‘Yes, very cold’, the weather officer told him.
As a result of this brief conversation the chief went back to the tribe and told his people to collect every bit of wood they could find.
A month later the chief called the National Weather Service once more and asked about the coming winter. ‘Yes,’ he was told, ‘it is going to be one of the coldest winters ever.’
‘How can you be so sure?’ the chief asked.
The weatherman replied: ‘Because the Native Americans of the Great Lakes are collecting wood like crazy.’
Structure Fallacy: Worthless argument ( if A then B, if B then A)
If it is cold, the Native Americans of Great Lake are collecting wood
If the Native Americans of Great Lake collect wood, it is being cold.
It is a worthless argument that makes a endless circle. The Naivive Americans knew the weather based on the weatherman that their chief reported; however, the weather man knew the weather based on the Native Americans..The different knowledge makes this story very funny.
As part of a question and answer portion of the 2007 Miss Teen USA pageant, Upton was asked by the questioner, Friday Night Lights actress Aimee Teegarden: “Recent polls have shown a fifth of Americans can’t locate the U.S. on a world map. Why do you think this is?” Upton responded:
I personally believe that U.S. Americans are unable to do so because, uh, some . . . people out there in our nation don’t have maps and, uh, I believe that our, uh, education like such as in South Africa and, uh, the Iraq, everywhere like such as, and, I believe that they should, our education over HERE in the U.S. should help the U.S., uh, or, uh, should help South Africa and should help the Iraq and the Asian countries, so we will be able to build up our future, for our children.
Content Fallacy: Fallacies of Presumption – The slippery slope ( The slippery slope does not explain how the ﬁrst event leads to the other. )
Analyze: the answer of Upton is meaningless. The anwer is the meaningless words that are combined together. The audience can not understand why “Recent polls have shown a fifth of Americans can’t locate the U.S. on a world map” related to her last conclusion ” should help South Africa and should help the Iraq and the Asian countries, so we will be able to build up our future, for our children”.